Document Type


Publication Date



Stream water pH and composition are widely used to monitor ongoing recovery from the deposition of strong anthropogenic acids in many forested headwater catchments in the northeastern United States. However, stream water composition is a function of highly complex and coupled processes, flowpaths, and variations in soil and bedrock composition. Spatial heterogeneity is especially pronounced in headwater catchments with steep topography, potentially limiting stream water composition as an indicator of changes in critical zone (CZ) dynamics during system recovery. To investigate the link between catchment characteristics, landscape position, and stream water composition we used long-term data (1991–2015) from the Sleepers River Research Watershed (SRRW) in northeastern Vermont. We investigated trends with time in stream water and trends with time, depth, and landscape position (upslope, midslope, and riparian zone) in groundwater (GW) and soil solution. We further determined soil elemental composition and mineralogy on archived (1996) and modern (2017) soil samples to assess changes in composition with time. SRRW is inherently well-buffered by calcite in bedrock and till, but soils had become acidified and are now recovering from acidification. Although base cations, especially Ca, decrease progressively with time in GW, riparian soils have become more enriched in Ca, due to a mixture of lateral and vertical transfers. At the same time stream water Ca fluxes increased over the past two decades, likely due to the leaching of (transient) legacy Ca from riparian zones and increased water fluxes. The stream water response therefore reflects the dynamic changes in soil chemistry, flow routing and water inputs.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Rights Information

© 2019 The Author(s).



Link to Article at Publisher Website

Included in

Climate Commons