Using the most comprehensive source of commercially available data on the US National Market System, we analyze all quotes and trades associated with Dow 30 stocks in calendar year 2016 from the vantage point of a single and fixed frame of reference. We find that inefficiencies created in part by the fragmentation of the equity marketplace are relatively common and persist for longer than what physical constraints may suggest. Information feeds reported different prices for the same equity more than 120 million times, with almost 64 million dislocation segments featuring meaningfully longer duration and higher magnitude. During this period, roughly 22% of all trades occurred while the SIP and aggregated direct feeds were dislocated. The current market configuration resulted in a realized opportunity cost totaling over $160 million, a conservative estimate that does not take into account intra-day offsetting events.
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© 2020 The MITRE Corp., Tyler Gray, Brendan Tivnan, and Christopher Danforth.
Tivnan BF, Dewhurst DR, Van Oort CM, Ring IV JH, Gray TJ, Tivnan BF, Koehler MT, McMahon MT, Slater DM, Veneman JG, Danforth CM. Fragmentation and inefficiencies in US equity markets: Evidence from the Dow 30. PloS one. 2020 Jan 22;15(1):e0226968.