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Mandatory immunization for school age children in the 20th Century led to a substantial decline in infectious disease.

All US states allow medical exemptions from immunizations with 49 permitting additional religious exemptions and 19 permitting additional philosophical exemptions.

Vaccine exemptions have lead to an increase in the incidence of disease outbreaks.

Healthcare providers play a critical role in educating parents about the benefits and risks of immunizations.

This project compares student attitudes and knowledge regarding vaccination at medical schools in two distinct states: one with no additional exemptions (West Virginia) and one with both additional exemptions (Vermont).


Jan Carney, MD, MPH, University of Vermont College of Medicine

Chris Finley, Vermont Department of Health


Vermont Department of Health - Immunization Program


Access to Health Services, Immunization and Infectious Diseases


Presented at the 2016 APHA Annual Meeting & Expo, Denver, CO, November 3, 2015.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License