Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Advisor

Stickle, Timothy


With its widespread use across the country and increasing evidence of its effectiveness, the wraparound process has been accepted widely as a feasible alternative to restrictive residential treatments for children with severe emotional and behavioral disorders. Yet wraparound has been implemented and conceptualized in such a variety of ways that many have begun to question whether it truly is a single definable approach. Recently, a conceptual model for wraparound was offered that included ten essential elements as the key ingredients for this approach. Subsequently, the Wraparound Fidelity Index (WFI) was designed to measure the degree to which an intervention adheres to these ten elements. The purpose of the current study was to use data collected via the WFI to provide the first empirical test of wraparound’s conceptual model. Programs providing wraparound to children with severe emotional and behavioral disorders and their families used the WFI to collect data from caregivers (n = 481), youths (n = 355; 11 to 19 years), and resource facilitators (n = 610). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test the fit of a series of structural models consistent with the proposed element model of wraparound. First, CFA models were examined separately for each of the elements. Second, CFA models that represent the full wraparound model were tested, separately for each of the three informants. And third, a multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis was conducted using a final CFA model including all elements (traits) and the three informants (methods). Findings supported the majority of elements and WFI items when tested separately at the first step. However, at the second step, only the youth model provided adequate fit to the data. Significant modification was necessary to yield admissible solutions for the caregiver and resource facilitator models. Finally, an inadmissible solution resulted when the three informants and revised model were tested in step three. Implications of the findings for the wraparound process, the WFI, and future research are discussed.