Bioprospecting For Genes That Confer Biofuel Tolerance To Escherichia Coli Using A Genomic Library Approach
Microorganisms are capable of producing advanced biofuels that can be used as ‘drop-in’ alternatives to conventional liquid fuels. However, vital physiological processes and membrane properties are often disrupted by the presence of biofuel and limit the production yields. In order to make microbial biofuels a competitive fuel source, finding mechanisms for improving resistance to the toxic effects of biofuel production is vital. This investigation aims to identify resistance mechanisms from microorganisms that have evolved to withstand hydrocarbon-rich environments, such as those that thrive near natural oil seeps and in oil-polluted waters.
First, using genomic DNA from Marinobacter aquaeolei, we constructed a transgenic library that we expressed in Escherichia coli. We exposed cells to inhibitory levels of pinene, a monoterpene that can serve as a jet fuel precursor with chemical properties similar to existing tactical fuels. Using a sequential strategy of a fosmid library followed by a plasmid library, we were able to isolate a region of DNA from the M. aquaeolei genome that conferred pinene tolerance when expressed in E. coli. We determined that a single gene, yceI, was responsible for the tolerance improvements. Overexpression of this gene placed no additional burden on the host. We also tested tolerance to other monoterpenes and showed that yceI selectively improves tolerance.
Additionally, we used genomic DNA from Pseudomonas putida KT2440, which has innate solvent-tolerance properties, to create transgenic libraries in an E. coli host. We exposed cells containing the library to pinene, selecting for genes that improved tolerance. Importantly, we found that expressing the sigma factor RpoD from P. putida greatly expanded the diversity of tolerance genes recovered. With low expression of rpoDP. putida, we isolated a single pinene tolerance gene; with increased expression of the sigma factor our selection experiments returned multiple distinct tolerance mechanisms, including some that have been previously documented and also new mechanisms. Interestingly, high levels of rpoDP. putida induction resulted in decreased diversity. We found that the tolerance levels provided by some genes are highly sensitive to the level of induction of rpoDP. putida, while others provide tolerance across a wide range of rpoDP. putida levels. This method for unlocking diversity in tolerance screening using heterologous sigma factor expression was applicable to both plasmid and fosmid-based transgenic libraries. These results suggest that by controlling the expression of appropriate heterologous sigma factors, we can greatly increase the searchable genomic space within transgenic libraries.
This dissertation describes a method of effectively screening genomic DNA from multiple organisms for genes to mitigate biofuel stress and shows how tolerance genes can improve bacterial growth in the presence of toxic biofuel compounds. These identified genes can be targeted in future studies as candidates for use in biofuel production strains to increase biofuel yields.