Date of Completion


Document Type

Honors College Thesis


Neurological Sciences

Thesis Type

Honors College

First Advisor

Margaret A. Vizzard

Second Advisor

Brenda Tessmann


chemokines, cystitis, urinary bladder, inflammation


Interstitial cystitis is a serious chronic condition that causes bladder pain and increased voiding frequency in millions of adults in the US, most of them women. A possible biomarker that may be linked to bladder inflammation is the CXCL chemokine family, specifically CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. The goal of this project is to investigate the expression and regulation of these CXCL chemokines during acute and chronic inflammation of the urinary bladder. Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were injected with cyclophosphamide (CYP) to induce bladder inflammation. RT-PCR and ELISAs were used to determine mRNA and protein expression of CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11 chemokines. During CYP-induced cystitis, the detrusor muscle exhibited more CXCL mRNA regulation in both males and females compared to the urothelium. CYP-induced cystitis significantly (p ≤ 0.05) upregulated CXCL10, while CXCL9 and CXCL11 were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) downregulated. CXCL chemokines were also more regulated during acute and intermediate inflammation versus chronic inflammation. Females had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased CXCL9 and CXCL11 protein levels after chronic inflammation. There were no statistical differences between CXCL chemokine protein levels in males. Future research such as immunohistochemistry to focus on tissue distribution of chemokines and use of chemokine receptor antagonist should be performed to further explore the functional role of these chemokines in male and female urinary bladders.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.