Date of Completion


Document Type

Honors College Thesis


Department of Psychiatry

Thesis Type

Honors College

First Advisor

Julie Dumas, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Sayamwong E. Hammack, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Nathan Jebbett, Ph.D.


Type II diabetes, Menopause, Cognition, Impairment, Postmenopause


Diabetes is not commonly thought to be a women’s health issue, however, it appears to have an association with increased cognitive impairment in women during menopause as compared to women without diabetes (Espeland et al., 2011). The present study investigated the effects of type II diabetes and menopause on cognition in women between the ages of 46 and 55 years. To assess cognition, participants performed the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS; Randolph 1998), Letter Number Sequencing Test (Wechsler, 1997), Trail Making Test (Delis, 2001), Verbal Fluency Test (Delis, 2001), Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (Wechsler, 2001), and the Buschke Selective Reminding and Delayed Recall Tests (Buschke, 1974). Participants also answered questionnaires on mood, diabetes, and hormone and reproductive history. No premenopausal women or perimenopausal women with diabetes participated. Women were divided into the following groups to examine the interactions of diabetes and hormones on cognition: perimenopausal women without diabetes, postmenopausal women with diabetes, and postmenopausal women without diabetes. It was predicted that women with diabetes would score lower on all tests, with an emphasis on difficulties with executive function and memory. Postmenopausal women with diabetes showed lower scores in working memory, executive control, visual attention, task switching, and episodic memory as seen in data from the Letter Number Sequencing Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Trail Making Test, and Buschke Selective Reminding and Delayed Recall Tests, respectively. Perimenopausal women without diabetes showed lower scores than postmenopausal women with and without diabetes on verbal memory and executive control. The sample of eight women was small, though there were indications of differences between groups highlighting the need for further research.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 License.