Primary Faculty Mentor Name

Dr. Betsy Hoza

Project Collaborators

Dr. Betsy Hoza (Professor; Dept. of Psychological Science); Dr. Erin Shoulberg (Research Assistant Professor; Dept. of Psychological Science ); Marissa Dennis (graduate student; Dept. of Psychological Science); Caroline Martin (graduate student; Dept. of Psychological Science); Dr. Lori Meyer (Assistant Professor; Dept. of Education); Dr. Connie Tompkins (Associate Professor; Dept. of Exercise Science)

Status

Graduate

Student College

Graduate College

Program/Major

Psychological Science

Primary Research Category

Social Sciences

Presentation Title

The Unique Effects of ADHD Symptoms and Processing Speed on Preschoolers' School Readiness

Time

3:00 PM

Location

Silver Maple Ballroom - Social Sciences

Abstract

Introduction

Although preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are more likely to be diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive presentation than the inattentive presentation, preschool children who demonstrate symptoms of inattention, as compared to hyperactivity/impulsivity, are at greater risk for academic problems (Lahey et al., 1998). Moreover, processing speed has been linked with reading and math skills, particularly during early elementary school (McGrew & Wendling, 2010). The present study examines the unique relation of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and processing speed to school readiness in a community sample of preschool children to better understand factors that may contribute to young children’s school readiness.

Methods and Results

A sample of predominantly Head Start preschoolers was drawn from a larger study. Measures of ADHD symptomatology, processing speed, and school readiness were assessed at the beginning of the school year. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relation of ADHD symptoms and processing speed to school readiness outcomes. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were entered as focal predictors in separate models, and age, sex, and Head Start status were entered as covariates. When inattention was the focal predictor, both inattention and processing speed were unique predictors of all school readiness outcomes (all p-values p-values ≤ .001). In all models, combined effects of processing speed and ADHD symptoms predicted significant variance in school readiness above and beyond covariate effects (range of ∆R2 = .12 to .32).

Conclusions

Our results indicate that inattention and processing speed, but not hyperactivity/ impulsivity, are unique predictors of preschoolers’ school readiness. These findings suggest it is crucial to address both inattention and processing speed deficits to support preschoolers’ school readiness and mitigate potential future academic risk.

References

Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Stein, M. A., Loney, J. A. N., Trapani, C., Nugent, K., ... & Gold, E. (1998). Validity of DSM- IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder for younger children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(7), 695-702.

McGrew, K. S., & Wendling, B. J. (2010). Cattell–Horn–Carroll cognitive-achievement relations: What we have learned from the past 20 years of research. Psychology in the Schools, 47(7), 651-675.

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The Unique Effects of ADHD Symptoms and Processing Speed on Preschoolers' School Readiness

Introduction

Although preschoolers with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are more likely to be diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive presentation than the inattentive presentation, preschool children who demonstrate symptoms of inattention, as compared to hyperactivity/impulsivity, are at greater risk for academic problems (Lahey et al., 1998). Moreover, processing speed has been linked with reading and math skills, particularly during early elementary school (McGrew & Wendling, 2010). The present study examines the unique relation of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and processing speed to school readiness in a community sample of preschool children to better understand factors that may contribute to young children’s school readiness.

Methods and Results

A sample of predominantly Head Start preschoolers was drawn from a larger study. Measures of ADHD symptomatology, processing speed, and school readiness were assessed at the beginning of the school year. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relation of ADHD symptoms and processing speed to school readiness outcomes. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were entered as focal predictors in separate models, and age, sex, and Head Start status were entered as covariates. When inattention was the focal predictor, both inattention and processing speed were unique predictors of all school readiness outcomes (all p-values p-values ≤ .001). In all models, combined effects of processing speed and ADHD symptoms predicted significant variance in school readiness above and beyond covariate effects (range of ∆R2 = .12 to .32).

Conclusions

Our results indicate that inattention and processing speed, but not hyperactivity/ impulsivity, are unique predictors of preschoolers’ school readiness. These findings suggest it is crucial to address both inattention and processing speed deficits to support preschoolers’ school readiness and mitigate potential future academic risk.

References

Lahey, B. B., Pelham, W. E., Stein, M. A., Loney, J. A. N., Trapani, C., Nugent, K., ... & Gold, E. (1998). Validity of DSM- IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder for younger children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(7), 695-702.

McGrew, K. S., & Wendling, B. J. (2010). Cattell–Horn–Carroll cognitive-achievement relations: What we have learned from the past 20 years of research. Psychology in the Schools, 47(7), 651-675.