Excess nutrients from agricultural, industrial, and wastewater runoff result in harmful algae blooms in rivers, lakes, and the ocean. Inorganic nitrogen and phosphorous can fuel the rapid growth of algae, which deprives the aquatic environment of oxygen and sunlight. This process, eutrophication, results in anoxic “dead zones” and threatens ecosystems and access to clean water.

In agriculture, this nutrient pollution can be controlled by implementing and improving practices that reduce runoff, such as building good soil structure and not over-fertilizing nitrogen and phosphorus using slow release fertilizers.


Vermont, University of Vermont, vegetable crop, nutrient loop

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